Monthly Archives: November 2014

More thoughts about Japanese stem cell trials right now…

I was working on the section of my book that deals with iPSC stem cell trials in Japan– a little bit about the history, Yamanaka’s discovery of iPSC cells in 2006, and how it all got to where we are now. There’s a lot of material about where we actually are at this point, too. Reading over what’s there so far, it’s kind of hard to avoid the conclusion that I’m sounding pretty negative about the Japanese research. It’s not that I want to take a negative attitude about it– I’d much rather see that research succeed– but they’re moving so fast, and I just can’t get on the rah-rah bandwagon. Here’s a good example of what I mean.

Over the past couple of years, Paul Knoepfler has posted a lot of concerns and critical thoughts about the process of getting iPS cells to clinical trials, and he’s used some pretty strong language. For example, here’s part of what he posted in October 2012:

Are iPS cells being rushed to the clinic or has their time come?
Just the title alone kind of tells us what his thoughts might be, but there’s much more. Here’s a very relevant quote:

The iPS cell field has run fast and furious over the past 6 years reaching a big milestone surprisingly quickly on Monday with Shinya Yamanaka winning the Nobel Prize.

But is the field going too fast?

In August I argued that iPS cells are not quite ready for primetime (i.e. clinical trial studies).

Now in October I mostly feel the same way.

But reportedly, some iPS cell researchers are working to start clinical studies wherein iPS cells would be transplanted into human patients as early as next year in Japan.

This is both exciting, but also potentially very risky if not flirting with disaster.

It would be tragic if the excitement and creativity exploding from iPS cells became diminished in the future by a rush to the clinic that harmed patients.

Pretty strong words. In fact, let’s look back at the August 2012 blog post that Paul referenced:

iPS cells not quite ready for primetime?

I like and support the idea of iPS cell banks (as discussed by Yamanaka). However, I do not believe the field has advanced far to support clinical use of iPS cells in the near future.

I realize that clinical use may nonetheless be on the horizon just a few years out in certain countries such as Japan, but in my opinion iPS cells are “not ready for primetime”, meaning not ready for clinical use. Not yet.

I also realize that some people in the stem cell field are going to be mad at me for saying this, but I believe it is true. People don’t read this blog to get sugar-coated, politically correct statements, right?

Are we ready to start using iPS cells in patients in the near future? Say in just a couple years?

Are they ready for primetime?

I think the answer is clearly “no”.

Guess what? This blog post was written in August 2012; Takahashi and company performed the first human transplant in September 2014. This means that the EXACT situation that Paul warned about, the EXACT one that he said absolutely should not happen, is EXACTLY the one that happened. (!!!) (feel free to add more exclamation points.)

But that’s far from all he had to say. Now, let’s fast forward to April 2013, only a year and a half ago:

As iPS cell studies in humans approach, accessible relevant pre-clinical data remains minimal

This dealt with Japanese scientist Takahashi and her attempts to get the first-ever human trials with iPSC’s off the ground (again, this actually did happen in September 2014.) Here’s what he had to say then, only a little over a year before that happened:

In her ISSCR seminar given 10 months ago, Takahashi presented some safety data from mice on the RPEs, but not from larger animals such as monkeys. To be clear, larger animal studies are not also not required, but this is an important distinction since larger animals are sometimes better models for humans and also because there were some anecdotal reports that said she had in fact presented larger animal pre-clinical safety data at the ISSCR meeting.

My understanding from Geron’s and ACT’s experience at the FDA here in the US is that the short-term nature of this iPS cell safety data along with very low animal numbers and lack of a clinically-relevant transplantation paradigm would be far from satisfying regulators here in the US that human studies should begin.

Unless there are a lot more, longer-term studies (e.g. 1 year or even longer) done on many more animals (e.g. 100s) yielding equally encouraging safety results specifically on transplants in the retina (not just sub-Q teratoma assays), I am deeply concerned as to whether the field is really ready to make the jump to transplanting iPS cell-based therapies into people any time soon.

Those long-term studies simply did not happen. There was never another large animal used in a study besides that one monkey (I have a copy of the study; I might post it later.) No additional long-term studies, certainly no hundreds of animals. I’m not sure about the transplant safety results, but I don’t really see how those could have been done when the long-term, additional studies themselves weren’t done. One thing we do know is that preclinical research wasn’t published until after this article (I want to say July 2013, but I would have to look this up.) Dr. Takahashi was given the go-ahead to start recruiting for the clinical trials in August 2013.

So what happened to the concern? Well, we don’t really know. It hasn’t been brought up in relation to the incredible rush to the clinic that the Takahashi study has turned out to be.

Here’s what I posted on Paul Knoepfler’s blog on November 18:

Paul, do you really, SERIOUSLY feel that only a year and a half later, anyone is really ready to transplant iPS cells into human beings? Isn’t a year and a half later “anytime soon?” Between your articles in 2012/2013 and today, we saw the STAP disaster take place at Riken, the SAME place that is responsible for the Takahashi trials. Some of the people involved are the same (such as Wakayama) Do you feel comfortable with the kind of self-policing that Riken has done since then? Do you think that all of the questions and concerns you had only a year and a half ago have been well addressed? Don’t you think there’s at least a real chance that these scientists are rushing terrifyingly and dangerously fast into human trials?

I just feel like the problem with the situation surrounding these human trials in Japan isn’t exactly rocket science. When pared down to its essentials, it’s pretty simple.

Ultimately, it comes down to this:
1.) Paul K. criticized the imminent rush to the clinic of iPSC’s in 2012 and 2013 in no uncertain terms
2.) He specifically said exactly two years ago that he didn’t think these cells would be ready for that IN TWO YEARS, which would be, well, today
3.) He listed some steps that he thought needed to be taken in order to be even a bit more confident that iPSC’s were ready for clinical human trials, and those steps weren’t taken,
4.) He brought up a ton of serious concerns, and now… can he SERIOUSLY be jumping on the rah-rah train? I don’t know if it’s exactly that bad, but he suddenly seems to have dropped all genuine criticism.

I really, really love Paul K’s blog, I think he’s an amazing scientist, he’s done so much good work, and I have so much respect for him… but when it comes to this issue, I think that he should return to his earlier and much more critical stance. Stem cell research is literally a matter of life and death. It’s worth being critical about.

Incredible News About Stargardt’s Cure

So, I was posting a summary for my book on the NaNoWriMo Facebook page, thinking that it sounded over the top… stem cell-based cures for horrible incurable diseases within 2-10 years, that kind of thing… well….

There’s no link for this, because it is insider info from shareholders who went to Ocata’s quarterly meeting in Boston, which was not open to the public. (There is a LOT about Ocata in the book– they’re the biotech company that just changed their name from Advanced Cell Technology.) Ocata is the company developing the first cure (or even treatment!) for age-related macular degeneration, a disease that slowly causes blindness for 30 million people in the U.S. and Europe alone. The interim published results for the clinical trials have looked great, but as far as when this treatment might actually come to market… it’s everybody’s guess.

But in the quarterly meeting… several attendees have all said the same thing. The drug already has orphan treatment approval for a genetic disease caused Stargardt’s, which has exactly the same effects and eventually causes blindness. But it attacks much younger people, including children as young as six. (Yep, six years old.) AND… the CEO of Ocata said that the drug will be available in the U.K. in 2018. We don’t have absolute confirmation of this yet. But it’s apparently what was officially said at that meeting.

One of the lines of thought on the forums is that the date might be earlier for AMD approval in the U.S, even quite a bit earlier if the drug is fast tracked here… we just don’t know. But this is INCREDIBLE!!!~ There has never ever been any kind of treatment for Stargardt’s before, and now there will be, and it will be STEM CELL BASED. As of now, that will be the first drug approved anywhere in the WORLD that is embryonic stem cell based.

YES! IT’S THE START OF A NEW ERA IN MEDICINE!!! And it will be in the book!
(sorry about the capslock…

New twitter account! Yay!

Yep, it’s an all-new account, where I will TRY to express coherent thoughts in 140 characters. CAN I do it? Um… I have a book posted elsewhere that’s on Chapter 126 and still going. But anything is possible! Yes! I can do it! 🙂 Anyway, here’s the link:

Link to the Amazing msemporda’s Blog

There are a lot of stem cell blogs out there, some of them better than others… a LOT better. and some a lot worse. 😛 Paul Knoepfler’s blog is one of those at the head of the pack for sure, although I don’t always agree with everything he’s been publishing lately, especially the glowing, overly optimistic, heading-for-a-fall-IMHO coverage of Takahashi and her iPSC cell based RPE work in Japan. (You know, the one where they’re moving terrifyingly fast and using humans as guinea pigs about a zillion times faster than they should have…) But anyway. We all have our own opinions. 🙂

It’s also good to branch out. And that’s why I’m recommending this link to msemporda’s blog!

The Amazing Stem Cell Science Blog. THIS, I tell you, is an expert. Stem cell science, sector analysis, biotech company analysis, news… he has it all. And he’s somehow able to keep from rants…. I can’t do that, and I admit it… So check it out. 🙂

Arizona Passed “Right to Try”

So… as everyone may have heard, Arizona voters just passed Proposition 303, the “Right to Try Law.” This event didn’t get anywhere near the media press that it should have (I didn’t read anything about it until today, in a Vancouver B.C. paper.) Here’s a good summary:

The measure will allow investigational drugs, biological products or devices to be made available to eligible terminally ill patients. The term “investigational” refers to medical treatments that have completed phase one of a clinical trial but have not yet been approved for general use by the Food and Drug Administration and remain under investigation in clinical trials.

I don’t know. I’m afraid that this is one of those things that sounds better than it is… one of the main problems being that it doesn’t do anything at all towards helping patients and their families to actually afford these drugs. Insurance companies do NOT need to cover them, which really, really bothers me. And there are a lot of companies who I wouldn’t trust a zillionth as far as I could throw them with an anvil tied on when it comes to this issue.

But… four states have already approved the same kind of referendums (Colorado, Louisiana, Missouri and Michigan.) The Colorado initiative was a lot better known, and the interesting thing is that biotech company Neuralstem has been a big player. The irony is that they’re one of the very few companies I would halfway trust to do a decent job with this, and yet I think they’re clearly participating in the process of opening the door to that slippery slope– remember that anvil-tied-on thing?

Overall, another issue, of course, is that these are state laws, and they’re going to be superceded by federal law when it comes to what the FDA will and won’t do. So that may sink the whole project. And then there’s the fact that only terminal illnesses will be covered. What about AMD? What about diseases that steal all quality of life and yet aren’t strictly “terminal?” Why not cover those too, if any are going to come in under the law at all?

I think the final message is that these “right to try” laws represent an idea that is something to watch. I can see both good and bad here. And hopefully, the bad won’t predominate. YMMV.

Day One of NaNo! And now, let’s talk about STAP…

It’s Day One of National Novel Writing Month! I’m officially a NaNo rebel, because I’m writing nonfiction. (Note the “novel” part. 😉 The idea is that you write 50,000 words during the month of November. (Don’t worry! I’ve done it before.) It can be done with nonfic, of course, and a lot of people seem to be doing it this year. Still, we’re kind of the stepchildren of the site… we don’t even get our own forums.

Today, I wrote the first 2000 words, yes and YAY! I’m starting with the STAP debacle from early this year. Here’s a sample (and please remember that the whole point of NaNo is that you don’t edit until you’re done… 😉

When it comes to the issue of STAP cells (stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency cells),here’s the impression that everyone pretty much got at first, which was January 2014, when the original papers came out. There’s this new treatment coming out any day now, and all that scientists need to do is to take regular adult cells and throw them in some orange juice, or poke at them with a straw and put them through a colander, and they turn into happy shiny new cells they can change into anything. Yay! Then you go to your doctor and he makes a new special treatment just for you for any disease that you could ever possibly have in the world.

Well I have to admit that this did, and does, sound good. How could it not? A special treatment just for you, and it’s that easy? A little TOO easy…

Is the phrase “I have a bridge to sell you” coming to mind yet?